Heart is basically one of the most important organa in the body and therefore, it becomes important to take extra care of this organ. However, as per some recent survey it has been found that the cardiovascular diseases are on the rise in the recent times especially due to the bad food habits and hectic lifestyle. In fact, it has already been proven that heart disease is the leading cause of death in some of the most developed countries of the world. Death due to cardiovascular disease in India is higher than the global average as per a recent report and thus this is high time that Indians must take care of their heart. In case you are experiencing any kind of heart related issues, then it becomes important to consult with the best cardiac surgeon in India.
Common types of heart diseases
Several types of heart diseases are there which can affect different parts of the organ and that too in varied ways such as:
- Arrhythmia: This happens when the heart beats in an abnormal manner such as
- Bradycardia: The heart beats slowly
- Tachycardia: The heart beats too fast
- Fibrillation: Heart beat is irregular
- Premature ventricular contractions or additional abnormal beats
Thus, arrhythmias take place when the electrical impulses in the heart that synchronize the heartbeat do not work appropriately. These make the heart beat in an inappropriate manner.
- Congenital heart disease: This term is used to define certain deformities of the heart which have been present since birth such as:
- Obstruction defects: This causes the blood flow through various chambers of the heart to get blocked totally or partially.
- Septal defects: This causes a hole between the two chambers of the heart
- Cyanotic heart disease: This is a defect in the heart which causes a lack of oxygen around the body.
- Coronary artery disease: These arteries supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients by circulating blood. Plaque buildup deposits contain cholesterol which narrows the coronary arteries and this in turn causes the heart to get less nutrients and oxygen.
- Myocardial infarction: This is also referred to as cardiac infarction, heart attack and coronary thrombosis. An intermittent blood flow destroys or damages part of the heart muscle. This is typically caused by a blood clot which forms in one of the coronary arteries and can also take place if an artery all of a sudden contracts or narrows.
- Dilated cardiomyopathy: Due to heart muscle weakness the heart chambers become dilated and they cannot even pump blood properly. The most common reason is that not sufficient oxygen reaches the heart muscle, because of coronary artery disease. This typically affects the left ventricle.
- Mitral valve prolapsed: This happens when the valve between the left ventricle and left atrium does not close fully it swells upwards, or back into the atrium. This condition is usually not life-threatening and no treatment is required in most cases. However, some people, particularly if the condition is marked by mitral regurgitation, treatment may be required.
- Heart failure: Also known as congestive heart failure, it occurs when the heart cannot pump blood around the body effectively. This can over time, leave the heart too weak or stiff to fill and pump appropriately.
The symptoms of heart disease usually vary depending on the condition that an individual is suffering from. But there are some common symptoms of heart disease such as heart palpitations, chest pain, breathlessness etc. The chest pain is quite common to most types of heart diseases such as angina which occurs especially when the heart does not get enough oxygen.
In case of heart attacks, the symptoms tend to be same like that of angina except that they can take place during rest and tend to be harsher. The symptoms of a heart attack can at times include heartburn, indigestion and a stomach ache as well as a heavy feeling in the chest.
Heart disease is caused due to damage to the coronary arteries, or a poor supply of oxygen and nutrients to the organ. While there are few other types of heart disease which are genetic and can occur before a person is born. Several lifestyle choices can increase the risk of heart disease as well such as:
- high blood pressure
- high cholesterol
- family history
Once a person is diagnosed with heart disease a person is treated using medications. In case these do not offer the desired outcome, surgical options are chosen.
Various types of medications are available for treating a variety of heart conditions such as
- Beta blockers: This helps to treat heart failure, heart attack, and high blood pressure
- Statins: Helps to reduce cholesterol
- Clopidogrel, aspirin, and warfarin: Help to prevent blood clots
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: Helps to treat heart failure and high blood pressure
However, one should not take any such medications without consulting with a cardiologist as the requirement for a particular patient may vary from the other.
Heart surgery is an exhaustive option which takes a long time to recover. But they can be effectual in treating heart problems and blockages for which medications may not be efficient, particularly in the advanced stages of heart disease. Coronary artery bypass surgery, angioplasty, repair or replace faulty heart valves etc. are some of the common surgical procedures.
Heart transplants are another surgical option opted for in this case but it is often quite difficult to find an appropriate heart of the required blood type and appropriate size that too within a proper time.
Few heart diseases expect those which are present from birth can be prevented by taking some simple measures, such as eating balanced diet, quitting smoking, exercising regularly, reducing intake of alcohol and keeping the body weight in check.
Even though these simple measures do not eliminate the risk of heart disease totally they can assist improve overall health and significantly reduce the chances of heart complications.